QA Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. What is Testware?

  • Testware is a subset of software. It helps testers to test the performance of applications. It plans, designs and executes tests during testing processes and procedures. Some of the features of Testware include inputs, scripts, and documents. Others are expected results, utilities and additional software necessary in testing.
  • Testware can also be defined as a combination of application software and utilities. These apps and utilities are vital in testing an individual software package. Testware is unique since it can be used for different purposes. Its various metrics enhance quality in testing. Its ability to accommodate different users makes testing easy.

Q2. What types of documentation are used in QA?
Be thorough with your answer and include all of the documentation you would normally use, including:

  1. Test metrics
  2. Test plan and cases
  3. Task distribution
  4. User profiles
  5. Test logs
  6. Test incident and summary reports

Q3. What is the role of documentation in QA?
Documentation plays a vital role in Quality Assurance. All the documents involved in SDLC such as Business Requirement Specifications, Designs, Inspection reports, Configurations, Code changes, Test Strategy, Test plans, Test cases, Bug reports, User manuals should be documented.

  • Documentation helps us to achieve high quality software product.
  • Documentation is necessary to make things more real
  • We could use documentation as a reference material and reuse it when necessary
  • We could save lot of organization’s time, effort and money by maintaining proper documentation.
  • Proper documentation makes easy for the client to review the software process.

Q4. What are the automation challenges that SQA(Software Quality Assurance) team faces while testing?

  • Mastering the  automation tool
  • Reusability of Automation script
  • Adaptability of test case for automation
  • Automating complex test cases.

Q5.What is the difference between Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC)?
Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance involves in process-oriented activities. It ensures the prevention of defects in the process used to make Software Application. So the defects don’t arise when the Software Application is being developed.
Quality Control: Quality Control involves in product-oriented activities. It executes the program or code to identify the defects in the Software Application.

Q6.What is the difference between Preventative and Reactive approaches in testing?
Preventive approach: It is also known as Verification Process. This approach is to prevent defects. In this approach, tests are designed at early stages of SDLC i.e., before the software has been produced. Here in this approach testers try to prevent defects in the early stages. It comes under Quality Analysis (QA).
Reactive approach: It is also known as Validation Process. This approach is to identify defects. In this approach, tests are designed to execute after the software has been produced. Here we try to find defects. It comes under Quality Control (QC).

Q7. What is Bug triage?
Bug triage is a formal process to find which bugs are important by prioritizing them based on their severity, frequency, risk and other important parameters. Testers assign priority (high, medium, low) to each and every bug in a bug triage meeting and based on the priority those bugs will be fixed in an order. By doing this we could save a lot of organization’s time.

Q8. What is quality audit?
Quality audit is the process of systematic and independent examination of a software product or process to assess compliance with specifications, standards, agreements and other relevant criteria.

Q9. List out the roles of  Software Quality Assurance engineer?
A software quality assurance engineer tasks may include following things amongst others

  • Writing source code
  • Software design
  • Control of source code
  • Reviewing code
  • Change management
  • Configuration management
  • Integration of software
  • Program testing
  • Release management process

Q10. What is agile testing, and why is it important?
Explain that agile testing tests software from the customer’s point of view, and follows the SDLC methodologies

Q11. List out the roles of Quality Assurance engineer?
A software quality assurance engineer usually involves in the following tasks.

  • QA Team is responsible to monitor the entire development process.
  • They are responsible to track the outcomes of each phase of SDLC and adjust them to meet the expectation.
  • They are responsible to read and understand the requirement documents.
  • Analyze test requirements, and design and execute tests.
  • Develop test cases and prioritize testing activities.
  • Record problems and issues in accordance with the project’s problem and issue management plans.
  • Work with the application team and/or client to resolve any issues that arise in the testing process.
  • Carry out regression testing every time when changes are made to the code to fix defects.
  • Have to interact with the clients to better understand the product requirements.
  • Participate in walkthroughs of testing procedures.

Q12. Explain the process of QA testing?
In simple words, QA testing process is a step by step process which involves analyzing requirement documents, preparing test strategy, test plan and test cases, executing test cases when the build is ready. In the execution process QA’s perform different types of testing to make sure the software reaches or exceeds the expectation.

Q13. What is the difference between build and release?
Bug Leakage: A bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. If now that bug (which was missed by the testing team) was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage.
Bug release: Releasing the software to the Production with some known bugs then we call it as Bug Release. These known bugs should be included in the release note. In other case, releasing the software to the testing team with some known bugs whose severity and priority is low. These bugs can be removed before releasing to production.

Q14. Explain bug life cycle.
Bug life cycle is also known as Defect life cycle. In Software Development process, the bug has a life cycle. The bug should go through the life cycle to be closed. Bug life cycle varies depends upon the tools (QC, JIRA etc.,) used and the process followed in the organization.

Q15. What is MR and ER?
MR: MR stands for Modification Request. It is used to change the existing functionality in a software, it is usually requested by clients.
ER: ER stands for Enhancement report. It is used to add a new feature in a software. It is usually requested by clients.

Q16. What types of software testing are available?
Be sure to cover the main types of testing, including:

  • Performance
  • Unit
  • Shakeout
  • Functional
  • Smoke
  • Alpha and Beta
  • White box and Black box
  • System
  • Stress and load
  • Integration and regression

Q17. Explain the difference between boundary and branch testing.
The testing of the software’s limit conditions is boundary testing, while the testing of all application branches is branch testing.

Q18. Mention what are the test artifacts involved in QA?
The test artifacts involved in QA are Test Strategy, Test Plan, Test Scenarios, Test Cases, Test Summary Report, Bug Report etc.,

Q19. Have you written Test Strategy?
Usually, test strategy document will be prepared by Test Managers or Project Managers. If you are applying for a Project Manger position and you have experience in preparing Test Strategy document then you can say Yes else say I know what is a test strategy and its purpose but I never got a chance to write Test Strategy document.

Q20. What is a Test Strategy and what does it include?
Test Strategy is a high level document (static document) and usually developed by project manager. It is a document which captures the approach on how we go about testing the product and achieve the goals. It is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS). Documents like Test Plan are prepared by keeping this document as base.

 Q21. Have you written Test Plan?
Usually, test plan document will be prepared by Test Leads or Test Managers. If you are applying for a Test lead position and you have experience in preparing Test Plan document then you can say Yes else say I know what is a test plan and its purpose but I never got a chance to write Test Strategy document.

Q22. What is a Test Plan and what does it include?
Test plan document is a document which contains the plan for all the testing activities to be done to deliver a quality product. Test Plan document is derived from the Product Description, SRS, or Use Case documents for all future activities of the project. It is usually prepared by the Test Lead or Test Manager and the focus of the document is to describe what to test, what not to test, how to test when to test and who will do what test. Also, it includes the environment and tools needed, resource allocation, test technique to be followed, risks and contingencies plan. A test plan is a dynamic document and we should always keep it up-to-date. Test plan document guides us how the testing activity should go on. Success of the testing project completely depends on Test Plan.

Q23. What is a Test case template?
A test case template is a document comes under one of the test artifacts, which allows testers to develop the test cases for a particular test scenario in order to verify whether the features of an application are working as intended or not. Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of pre-conditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results. Most of the companies are using test case management tools such as Quality Center (HP QC), JIRA etc., and some of the companies still using excel sheets to write test cases.

Q24. Explain the differences between load testing, stress testing, and volume testing.
You may need to refresh your memory and review these three testing methods.

Q25. What is the difference between validation and verification when testing software?
Verification takes into account all the key aspects of software development, validation is the actual testing of verification aspects.

Q26. What are the key components of a test case template
The key components of a test case template are Project name, Module name, Created by, Date of creation, reviewed by, date of review, executed by, Date of execution, test scenario, tase case id, test case description, Precondition, Test steps, Test data, expected result, post condition, actual result, status of the bug.

Q27. How do you decide when you have tested enough?
This is one of the most important questions in terms of ISTQB. Option will be tricky and you have to choose the right one.
As a project manager or project lead, sometimes you might face a situation to call off the testing to release the product early. In those cases, you have to decide whether the testers have tested the product enough or not.
There are many factors involved in the real time projects to decide when to stop testing.

  • if we reach Testing deadlines or release deadlines
  • By reaching the decided pass percentage of test cases
  • if the risk in the project is under the acceptable limit
  • if All the high priority bugs and blockers are fixed
  • if we met the acceptance criteria

As per ISTQB, It depends on the risks for the system being tested.

Q28. Tell me some key points to consider while writing a bug report. 
i. Reproduce the bug 2-3 times.
ii. Use some keywords related to your bug and search in the Defect Tracking Tool.
iii. Check in similar modules.
iv. Report the problem immediately.
v. Write detailed steps to reproduce the bug.
vi. Write a good defect summary. Watch your language in the process of writing the bug report, your words should not offend people. Never use capital letter whilst explaining the issue.
vii. Advisable to Illustrate the issue by using proper screenshots.
viii. Proofread your bug report twice or thrice before posting it.

Q29. What is Configuration management?
Configuration management is a process followed during the project life cycle to control and document each and every change.

Q30. What are the various tools you have used in testing process?
The tools which I have used during testing process are as follows.

Test Management Tools: JIRA, TestLodge, Quality Center
Test Case Management Tools: TestCaseLab
Defect Tracking Tools: Bugzilla, MantisBT
Automation Tools: QTP/UFT, Selenium, LoadRunner
GUI Tools: Froglogic Squish
Cross Browser Testing Tools: CrossBrowserTesting, BrowserStack

 Q31. What are the advantage and disadvantages of Automated Testing?
Advantages:

  1. Automation testing is faster in execution
  2. It is cheaper compared to manual testing in a long run
  3. Automated testing is more reliable
  4. Automated testing is more powerful and versatile
  5. It is mostly used for regression testing
  6. It does not require human intervention. Test scripts can be run unattended
  7. It helps to increase the test coverage

Disadvantages:

  1. It is recommended only for stable products
  2. Automation testing is expensive initially
  3. Most of the automation tools are expensive
  4. It has some limitations such as handling captcha, fonts, color
  5. Huge maintenance in case of repeated changes in the requirements

Not all the tools support all kinds of testing. Such as windows, web, mobility, performance/load testing

Q32.  What is traceability matrix?
A test matrix is used to map test scripts to requirements.

Q33. What is a cause effect graph?
A cause effect graph is a graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects that can be used to design test cases.

Q34. What is the difference between Compatibility testing and Cross browser testing?
Compatibility testing: Testing an application on different hardware or software platform is Compatibility testing.
Example: Different devices such as iPhone, Samsung etc., Different operating system such as Windows, Linux etc.,

Cross browser testing: Testing a web application on different browsers is Cross browser testing. Cross browser testing is a subset of Compatibility testing.
Example: Google Chrome, IE 10, IE 11, Firefox 43 etc.,

Q35. Mention how validation activities should be conducted?
Validation activities should be conducted by following techniques

  • Hire third party independent verification and validation
  • Assign internal staff members that are not involved in validation and verification activities
  • Independent evaluation
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