Layout Set, Form, Print Program, Function Modules.
2. Are SAP Scripts client dependent or independent?
Standard scripts are client independent
User defined scripts are client dependent.
3. What are components of Layout Set?
Header Data, Page,Page Windows, Windows, Paragraph Format, Character Format.
4. What is lock object?
To synchronize access of several users using same data Lock objects are used.
5. How data is stored in cluster table?
A cluster table contains data from multiple DDIC tables. It stores data as name value pair.
6. What are the types of Subroutines?
Internal Subroutines: The source code of the internal subroutines will be in the same ABAP/4 program as the calling procedure (internal call).
External Subroutines: The source code of the external subroutines will be in an ABAP/4 program other than the calling procedure.
7. What are the different types of parameters?
Formal Parameters: Parameters, which are defined during the definition of subroutine with the FORM statement. Actual Parameters: Parameters which are specified during the call of a subroutine with the PERFORM statement.
8. What is SAP style maintenance?
SAP style maintenance is a collection of character & paragraph format.
9. How will create standard text? How will you insert standard text in SAP Script?
Transaction code for creating standard text is SO10. In SE 71 goto ,main menu ->insert ->standard text or by using control command “Include Name [Object o] [ ID i] [ Language L ] [Pragraph p ]” Where: Name denotes the name of standard text that you given Rest all are optional parameters.
10. Give the types of symbols used in SAP Script?
11. Name some of the control commands?
12. How do you insert conditional & unconditional page breaks during text formatting?
We can insert conditional page breaks by using control command -> Protect…Endprotect. And Unconditional page breaks-> New-page.
13. How do you upload logo in SAP script ?
We can upload logo using the program RSTXLDMC or using transaction code SE78.
14. Differentiate between Page1 & Page2 format?
Page1 format: In this all pages have the same format.
Page2 format: In this there is variation in page format i.e. first page has different format than second page.
16.Name the ABAP/4 Modularization techniques.
Source code modularization.
7. Differentiate between Character format & Paragraph format?
Paragraph format is used for formatting a paragraph, we can add tabs in this.We can use character format in paragraph format. Character format are used for assigning various attributes of font ( size, type, bold }.
8.What are the different methods of passing data?
Calling by reference: During a subroutine call, only the address of the actual parameter is transferred to the formal parameters. The formal parameter has no memory of its own, and we work with the field of the calling program within the subroutine. If we change the formal parameter, the field contents in the calling program also changes.
Calling by value: During a subroutine call, the formal parameters are created as copies of the actual parameters.The formal parameters have memory of their own.Changes to the formal parameters have no effect on the actual parameters.
Call by value and result: Similar to pass by value, but the contents of new memory is copied back into the original memory before returning.
9. What is the difference between the function module and external subroutine?
Table work area are not shared between the function module and calling program. Whereas subroutine use shared same work area. We can leave a function module using Raise statement.Whereas check,exit or stop are used to leave a subroutine . Function module has special interface to define parameters.Whereas subroutine don’t have.
10. What are the different print modes used in SAP Script & explain?
S The page is printed in simplex mode. That is, the printer should print on only one side of the paper. If another mode was previously active, then the printer is switched to simplex mode with the start of the page.
D The page is printed on the first side of a sheet in duplex mode. If another mode was previously active, then the printer is switched to duplex mode with the start of the page and continues in this mode.
T The page is printed on the first side of a sheet in tumble duplex mode. That is, the printer prints on both sides. The page on the second side is always inverted, so that the footer of the second page is printed opposite the header of the first page.
11. Which are the components of function group?
A main program.
A top include.
A UXX include.
A function module include.
12. Which are the function modules used in a print program?
13. What is SAP ABAP?
SAP is a type of software known as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) that large company use to manage their day to day affairs. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the coding language for SAP to develop RICEFW objects. (Reports, Interfaces, Extensions, Forms and Workflows).
14. What do you mean by an ABAP data dictionary?
To describe the logical structures of the objects that are used in application development ABAP 4 data dictionary is used. It is also used to show the underlying relational database in tables.
15. Explain the difference between pool tables and transparent tables?
Transparent tables: It has one to one relation with the table in the database. Its structure corresponds to single database field.
Pooled tables: It has many to one relation with the table in the database. Pooled tables are stored at the database level.
Basic List: For simple reports
Statistics: For Percentage, Average etc.
Ranked List : For analytical reports
16. What is cardinality in WebDynpro ABAP?
Cardinality is a property which specifies how many records that can be stored in a node.
17. What is MVC in WebDynpro ABAP?
Basically WebDynpro follows MVC M-Model(Business logic ) V-View(Screen) C-Controller( Controls screen and Model)
18. What is a context in WebDynpro ABAP?
Context is a temporary place which stores data in the form of nodes and attributes.
19. What is purpose of “wd_This” in web dynpro ABAP ?
wd_this : is the instance on current controller, all methods and attributes in that controller can be accessed by using this instance.
20. What is MVC Architecture? explain?
Web dynpro ABAP follows MVC (Model View Controller) Architecture.
Here M – Modal – actual business logic ex: calling Function modules, class methods etc
V – View – View is nothing but screen with UI elements that holds data.
C – Controller – This is responsible for communication between modal and view.
The main advantage of MVC is for better readability and re-usability
21. Difference between ABAP & Webdynpro ABAP applications?
ABAP applications are traditional GUI applications which runs on SAP GUI.
Web Dynpro applications are SAP web based applications which runs on web browser.
22. What do you mean by BDC (Batch Data Communications) programming?
It is an automatic procedure to transfer large or external data into SAP system. ‘Queue file’ is the central component of the transfer, which receives the data through batch input programs and groups that are associated into ‘sessions’.
23. What are the controllers available in WebDynpro ABAP and explain?
24. Describe the data classes?
The data classes are classified into following classes
Master Data: The data in this class seldom change
Transaction Data: The data can be changed often in this class
Organization Data: This data is a customized data and is entered in the system when the system is configured. It is rarely changed.
System Data: This data is used by R/3 system itself
25. What are the internal tables?
Internal table exists only when the program is run. It is used for performing table calculations on subset of database tables and also for re-organizing the content of database tables as per the users need.
26. List down the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?
There are 3 functional modules which are used in sequence to perform data transfer successfully using BDC programming. They are
27. What is a foreign key relationship?
To ensure the consistency of data, foreign keys are used. The relationship established between the tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Data entered should be checked against the existing data to ensure that there is no contradiction. Cardinality has to be specified while defining foreign key relationship.
28. What is Smart Forms?
Smart forms allow you to create forms using a graphical design tool.
29. What are the components of SAP scripts?
For SAP, SAP scripts are a word processing tool. It has a function like standard text and layout sets. Its layout set consists of: Windows and pages, Character formats, Paragraph formats etc.
30. How to create ‘table cluster’?
In ABAP dictionary, select object type Table, enter a table name and choose create
A field maintenance screen for the table is displayed. Table type Transparent table, set it as a default
Make the necessary entries in the short description and delivery classified on the Attributes page. Then define the fields of the table.
Proceed as when creating a transparent table. Now save your entries
Now choose EXTRASàChange table category
When a dialogue box appears you have to select the table type ‘Pooled table’ or ‘Cluster table’
After selecting the table, return to the field maintenance screen for the table. Field pool or cluster name is displayed on the Attributes tab page in addition to the standard fields.
Now enter the name of the table cluster or table pool to which you want to assign the cluster table.
31. When do we use End-of-selection?
End of the selection event is mostly used when we are writing HR-ABAP code. In the HR-ABAP code, data is retrieved in the start of selection event and printing on the list and all will be done at the end of the selection event.
32. How can you format the data before write statement in the report?
By using the loop event the reports output can be formatted
33. What is table buffer? Which type of tables used this buffer?
Over here, buffer means memory area, table buffer means the table information is available on the application server. When you call data from database table, it will come from application server. Transparent tables and pool tables are buffered, while cluster table cannot be buffered.
34. What is the difference between ‘Type’ and ‘Like’?
‘Type’: You assign data type directly to the data object while declaring.
‘Like’: You assign the data type of another object to the declaring data object.
‘Type’ refers the existing data type while ‘Like’ refers to the existing data object.
35. What is dispatcher?
A control agent referred as SAP dispatcher, manages resources for the R/3 applications.
36. What are the different ABAP/4 editors? What are the differences?
The 2 editors are SE38 and SE80 and both have the ABAP editor in place. In SE38 , you can create programs and view online reports and basically do all the development of objects in this editor. In SE80, there are additional features such as creating packages, function group, module pool, classes, programs and BSP applications.
37. Explain the difference between dialog program and a report?
A report is an executable program; dialog is a module pool program. It has to be executed via a transaction only. Dialog programming is used for customization of screens.
38. How can you debug a script form?
To debug a script form, you have to follow
SE71–>give the form name->utilities->activate debugger
39. What is the difference between a ‘Database index’ and a ‘Match code’?
Database Index’ contains fields from one table while ‘Match Code’ contain fields from several tables. Match code objects can be built on cluster tables, transparent tables and pooled tables.
40. Explain the difference between Template and Table?
The difference between the table and template is that, table is a dynamic and template is a static.
Mention what is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?
ALV stands for Application List Viewer. To enhance the output of the report, SAP provides a set of ALV function modules which can be used, and it also improves the functionality and readability of any report output. It is an efficient tool used for arranging the columns in a report output.