SAP ERP is enterprise resource planning software developed by the German company SAP SE. SAP ERP incorporates the key business functions of an organization. The latest version (SAP ERP 6.0) was made available in 2006. The most recent Enhancement Package (EHP8) for SAP ERP 6.0 was released in 2016.
SAP stands for Systems Application and Products in Data Processing. It is standards based ERP software. Some of the completive softwares include Oracle, Microsoft Dynamics etc.
SAP stands for Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing.It was Founded in 1972 by Wellenreuther, Hopp, Hector, Plattner and Tschira and is a German Company.
SAP is name of the company as well its ERP product.
SAP is #1 in the ERP market .As of 2010, SAP has more than 140,000 installations worldwide ,over 25 industry-specific business solutions, and more than 75,000 customers in 120 countries.
ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning Software and is a integrated computer based system used to manage a company’s resources effectively. It ensures smooth information amongst various departments in an enterprise or a company and manages workflows.
ERP means Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP is a kind of system which provides a common platform to different processes taking place in an organization including finance, production, inventory control etc. It also enables the stakeholders or shareholders to connect with the inside organization. In short, they facilitate the flow of information between all departments of an enterprise.
JD Edwards (now acquired by Oracle)
Peoplesoft (now acquired by Oracle)
Some of the major ERP systems other than SAP are from Oracle, Microsoft and Infor. QAD, Lawson, Epicor, Sage and IFS are the players in mid-size businesses and Exact Globe, Syspro, NetSuite, Visibility, Consona, CDC Software and Activant Solutions round out the ERP vendors for small businesses.
SAP R/3 – It succeds SAP R/2 and is market leader in ERP. R/3 stands for three tier architecture i.e. Presentation , Logic and Data tier. It has many modules like SD , FI , HR etc which encompass almost all enterprise departments.
mySAP – It is a suite of SAP products which apart from SAP R/3 also includes SRM , PLM, CRM, SCM
Business Content in SAP is a pre-defined and pre-configured models of information contained in the SAP warehouse which can be used directly or with desired modification in different industries. This information model includes integral roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, ODS objects, key figures, characteristics, update rules, and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications, and for other selection applications.
Netweaver is an integrated technology platform such that all the products in the mySAP suite can run on a single instance of netweaver known as SAP Web Application Server (SAP WEBAs).
The advantage of using Netweaver is you can access SAP data using the web (http protocol) or even mobile. Thus you can save on costs involved in training users on SAP Client side GUI.
FI (Financial Accounting)
IM (Investment Management)
HR (Human Resource)
SD (Sales and Distribution)
MM (Materials Management)
PM (Plant Maintenance)
PP (Production Planning)
QM – Quality Management
BW (Business Warehousing)
There are many industry specific solutions that SAP provides apart from the list of modules above which is ever growing.
SAP IDES stands for SAP Internet Demonstration and Evaluation System. This system is used to demonstrate the functionality of various SAP solutions used by important customers. This system uses data of the IDES model company.
SAP Data sets are the sets of information which are required to solve some queries which cannot be solved by using the method interfaces.
Meta Data: Meta Data is data about Data. It tells you about the structure of data or MetaObjects.
Master Data: This Data is key business information like Customer information , Employee , Materials etc. This is more like a reference data. For Ex. If a customer orders 10 units of your product instead of asking customer for his shipping address 10 times , the same can be referenced from the Customer Master Data.
Transaction Data: This is data related to day to day transactions.
ODS is Operational Data Store. It is a component of business warehouse. It is mainly used for reporting of details.
- Physical data stores:
- Virtual data stores:
Virtual InfoCube with Services
MultiCube is a Infocube which is a collection of several BasicCubes. Using MultiCubes one can test the data from BasicCubes in a single context. MultiCubes itself doesn’t contain any data but works only on data from BasicCubes.
While executing the SAP Payment Run the standard stages of SAP includes
Entering of parameters: It includes entering company codes, vendor accounts, payment methods, etc.
Proposal Scheduling: The system proposes list of invoices to be paid
Payment booking: Booking of the actual payments into the ledger
Printing of Payment forms: Printing of payment forms
The difference between the residual and partial payment includes
Partial payment: For example, let say invoice A456 exits for $100 and customer pay $70. With the partial payment, it offsets the invoice leaving a remaining balance $30
Residual Payment: While in residual payment, invoice A456 is cleared for the full value $100 and a new invoice line item is produced for the remaining balance of $30.
It is the standard data type object; it exists only during the runtime of the program.
Check the table will be at field level checking
Value table will be at domain level checking
Transparent table will exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well as in the database exactly with the same data and fields
The application layer of a R/3 system is made up of the application server and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 system run on application servers. Using the message server, the application servers communicate with presentation components, the database and also with each other. All the data are stored in a centralized server, which is known as a database server.
Company in SAP is the highest organizational unit for which financial statements like profit and loss statements, balance sheets can be drawn according to the requirement of organizations. A single company contains one or many company codes. All the company codes in SAP must use same COA (chart of accounts) and fiscal year.
SAP ABAP is the programming language used within SAP to customize, generate forms, generate reports, etc. While SAP basis is, the administration module of SAP used to control code changes, upgrades, database admin, network setup, etc.
The different types of the source system in SAP includes
SAP R/3 source system
In the SAP source system, extractors is a data retrieval mechanism. It can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets.
The star schema consists of the fact tables and the dimension tables. The master data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension tables. These separate tables for master data are termed as the Extended Star Schema.
The approach to writing BDC program is to
Convert the legacy system data to a flat file into the internal table referred as “Conversion.”
Transfer the Flat file into the SAP system called “SAP Data Transfer.”
Depending upon the BDC type CALL TRANSACTION or CREATE SESSIONS
At any given time for a particular client , you can work on 6 sessions at max.
In SAP terminology, a transaction is series of logically connected dialog steps.
Yes, you can run business warehouse without R/3 implementation. You have to simply transfer structures associated with business warehouse data sources (ODS table, Infocube) to the inbound data files or use third party tools to connect your flat files and other data sources.
The data sets are sequential files processed on the application server. They are used for file handling in SAP.
Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are entered into the workbooks.
Variables are used in different application
User entry/default type
It is expensive
Demands highly trained staff
Lengthy implementation time
Interfaces are a little bit complex
Does not determine where master data resides
To view transaction table TSTC you can use transaction code st11, and you can define a new t-code using transaction se93.
OLAP: OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing it is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema, dimensions and composition facts
Data Mining: It is an analytic process to explore data in search of consistent patterns or systematic relationship between variables.
Three stages of data-mining includes
Different layers in R/3 system includes
To create a table in the data dictionary, you have to follow this steps
Creating domains (data type, field length, range)
Creating data elements (Properties and type for a table field)
Creating tables (SE 11)
Business Warehouse uses a data warehouse and OLAP concepts for analyzing and storing data While the R/3 was intended for transaction processing. You can get the same analysis out of R/3, but it would be easier from a BW.
To deal with communication, you can use two types of services
Message Service: In order to exchange short internal messages, this service is used by the application servers
Gateway Service: This service allows communication between R/3 and external applications using CPI-C protocol.
“Reason Codes” are tags that can be allocated to describe under/overpayments during the allocation of incoming customer payments. They should not be mixed up with “void reason codes” used when outgoing cheques are produced.
The SAP gateway process uses TCP/IP protocol to communicate with the clients.
Pooled tables are used to store control data. Several pooled tables can be united to form a table pool. Table tool is a physical table on the database in which all the records of the allocated pooled tables are stored.
If the data in one of the base tables of a matchcode ID changes, the matchcode data has to be updated. The update type stipulates when the match-code has to be updated and how it has to be done. The update type also defines which method is to be used for building match-codes.
.sca stands for SAP component Archive. It is used to deploy the Java components, patches and other java developments in the form of .sca,.sda,.war and .jar.
Business Content in SAP is a pre-configured and pre-defined models of information contained in the SAP warehouse which can be used directly or with desired modification in different industries.
Dispatcher is a component that takes the request for client systems and stores the request in queue.
The common transport errors include
Return code 4: Imported with warnings, generation of program, columns or row missing
Return code 8: Imported with syntax error, program generation error, dictionary activation error, etc.
Return code 12: Indicates import cancelled due to object missing, object not active, etc.
Return code 18: Indicates import cancelled due to system down while import, user expired during import and insufficient roles or authorization
AWB stands for Administrator Workbench. It is a tool for monitoring, controlling and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information warehousing.
Bex means Business Explorer. It allows end user to locate reports, analyze information, view reports and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to their respective roles in the Bex browser. It has following components Bex analyzer, Bex Map and Bex web.
An ODS object serves to store debugged and consolidated transaction data on a document level. It defines a consolidated dataset from one or more info-sources. This data-set can be evaluated with a Bex query or Infoset query. The data of an ODS object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes or other ODS object in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS object is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
Data Element: It is an intermediate object between domain and table type
Domain: It defines the attributes such as length, type, and possible value range
To use parameter IDs, you need to “set” values in the global memory area and then “get” values from this parameter ID memory area. In the case of the online program, you have to “Set” values from screen fields, and you will “get” these values for screen fields.
ALE: Application Linking enabling
IDOC: Intermediatary documents
EDI: Electronic data interchange
RFC: Remote function call
LUW is a span of time during which database records are updated either commit or rollback.
BDC stand for Batch Data Communication. The methods of BDC are
Direct Input Method
Batch Input Session Method
Call transaction Method
The baseline date is the date from which the payment terms apply. Usually, it is the document date on the invoice but can also be the date of entry or posting date from the ledger.
In certain industries, it is not possible to create new master records for every vendor trading partner. One-time vendor enables for a dummy vendor code to be used on invoice entry and the information that is normally stored in the vendor master, is keyed on the invoice itself.