SAP WORKFLOW Interview Questions

List the various advantages of SAP Business Workflow.

-Workflow provides numerous advantages to SAP users and consultants:

-It allows consultants to create new business processes without modifying the standard SAP code.

-Workflow ensures that the tasks are executed in the correct sequential order, involving the relevant personnel.

-SAP Business Workflow may be run through the internet or intranet web applications via the Webflow Engine.

-Deadline Monitoring functionality is also incorporated within SAP Workflow.

-The timely execution of activities is guaranteed even when a number of parties (users) are involved.

-Workflow reduces both time and expense involved in managing business activities.

How can we debug a workflow?

If it is a dialog task, you can set breakpoint in the method called by the task If it is a method that you want to debug, use SWO1, and create a instance of the object and debug the methods. If it is a background task, and you are in development client, you can do the following. Create an infinite loop in the method you want to debug. Go to SM50 (processes overview) and select the relevant item, and select debug from option.

What are the different types of WF Agents?

1.Possible Agents
Users who are authorized to execute the task
Configured during Task definition (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule)
If a Task is configured as General Task, then all users become possible users.

2.Responsible Agents
The users to whom the work item needs to be sent.
This is set during Step definition. Note that Possible agents are defined during Task definition. (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule, Container Element)
Note: The work item recipients is determined by intersection of Possible Agents and Responsible Agents.

3.Actual Agents
Actual user who executed the dialog task

4.Excluded Agents
Users who are not supposed to execute the dialog task (even if they are in possible agents)

Is there any way to undelete work items in SAP workflow after I have logically deleted them already?

No. What you can do is restart the workflow using SWUE. This will be the same as recreating the workflow because it will start at the point where it has logically been deleted.

Have you used performance tuning? What major steps will you use for these?

The Main Transaction Code Involved in Performance Tuning is SE30-Runtime Analysis and ST05-SQL Trace.

What is a work item ? How does it differ from a simple SAP office mail item ?

-A work item is a runtime object generated by a step within a workflow. Whenever user interaction is required, the respective users are informed via work items. These work items will be received by the user in their Business Workplace inbox, or other email application such as Microsoft Outlook Rights;

-The work item may be a user decision or a dialog form that allow you to enter data for starting a process within SAP, or a confirmation of whether a particular task may be performed. The user then chooses an appropriate option which determines the subsequent behavior of the workflow in question. There are a variety of applicable work items. Each work item has a status reflecting the stage of processing at any given point in time.

-A work item comprises of text explaining what action needs to be taken, whom to refer to and any information pertinent to the business object involved.

-Unlike simple SAP office mails, work items are active entities, as they determine the subsequent direction of the workflow. SAP office mails can also be deleted from the inbox without viewing them whereas a work item has to be executed to have it removed from your inbox.

What are the agent determination techniques?

Rule Resolution with responsibility: Helpful when a set of static positions are responsible for action.
Rule resolution with Function (FM): Helpful when agents are determined dynamically from business logic.
Rule resolution with OM: Usually used in CRM. Have not used
Rule resolution with Function, but asynchronously: This is through a class and a method. Initially WI is created in status ready without agent. Later agent is assigned. This is suitable for agent determination having complex logic.
Users: Rarely used.
Role: Ex: ABAP_DEVELOPER
OM objects (Position, Org Unit, work center)
Expression: A container element containing the agents.

Containers
Workflow Container:
Task Container:

SWC_GET_CONTAINER
SWC_GET_TABLE
SWC_SET_CONTAINER
SWC_SET_TABLE

Event Container:
Method Container:
Rule Container: For resolving rules

Business Objects
Key Fields:
Attributes:
Database: Automatically gets populated by system code
Virtual: You determine the content and use SWC_SET_CONTAINER to populate
Methods: Can be created using FM, Transaction, Report, Dialog Module, Other
Synchronous: Finish execution before handling the control back to the task.
Asynchronous: Return the control back immediately. Cannot have export parameters. They depend on events to return results back to the calling program.

Dialog: Something to user
Background: Cannot have messages or exceptions

What are the options to implement method of a BO?

FM
BAPI
Tcode
Dialog Module
Report
Other (BO program)

How to extend a BO?

Got SWO1 and enter a BO that you want to extend. Click on ‘New Subtype’ Give all the details.
Go back to SW01, enter the BO, and goto Settings Delegate.
Example:
BUS7051: Notification,
BUS1001: Material,
BUS2012: Purchase Order,
BUS1065: Employee

Various status of BO
Modeled: Not accessible at runtime
Implemented: Not ready to be used, Internal use only
Released: For customer to use
Obsolete: Don’t use anymore

To change attribute values from methods of a BO
SWC_GET_CONTAINER
SWC_SET_CONTAINER

How to create Events?

HR Tables: SWEHR2/3
ABAP Code user Exit: SWE_EVENT_CREATE
Change Document: SWEC
Status management:
Message Control:
Event Linkage: SWE2

Subtype:
Key field cannot be created. Methods and attributes can be created.

Delegate:
If you want to change the functionality of a method, define a sub type, redefine the method, delegate the parent business object to child object.

Interface
Interface is a combination of Attributes, Methods and Events, to reduce the redundancy in definition.
IFSAP: Common interface for all BOs. It has following methods
Method: Display
Method: Existence Check
Attribute; ObjectType

Different Workflow Steps activities
Condition:
Multiple Conditions:
Until Loop:
Fork:
Send Mail:
Container Operations:
Event Creator:
Wait Event:
Process Control

Different deadline conditions
Requested Start: When this date is met, only then the work item will start execution, or available for taking action (dialog).
Latest Start: When a date mentioned here is met, it can send an email, or can be modeled to do something action.
Requested End: Same as Latest Start
Latest End: Same as Latest Start

Important Tcodes
Workflow Toolbox: SWUS
Simulate Event: SWU0
Business Object Repository: SW01
Event Trace: SWEL (S)
Workitems per task: SWI2_FREQ
SWUE: Event simulate
SWEL: Event log
SWELS: Set event log ON
SWE2: Linkage between Event and Workflow
SWEHR2: Event linkage in HR
SWU3: Workflow customizing
SWU_OBUF: Synchronize buffers
SWI5: Look into other user’s SBWP

What are the Important background Jobs for workflow?:

SWWDHEX          For deadline monitoring
SWWERRE           For error Monitoring
SWEQSRV           For Event Queue Delivery

When a infotype action is performed, an event should trigger, and a workflow subsequently. How can I configure it?

Tcode SWEHR2

When a infotype action is performed, an FM should trigger, and a workflow subsequently. How can I configure it?

Tcode SWEHR2

How to achieve dynamic parallel processing?

There are three ways a parallel processing can be implemented

Dynamic parallel processing using a multi-line container element
Fork (3 out of 5)        Work queue

In dynamic processing the type of each entry in the table have to be of same type.

Same task will be processed for each line of the multi-line container. It can be a dialog or background task. Deadline monitoring, binding, agent determination will be same for each work item generated To achieve, go to “Miscellaneous” in the activity, and enter the multiline container element.

How to notify a user immediately in R/3 that he has got an email?

Mark the priority as ‘1’ Express

How can we debug a workflow?

If it is a dialog task, you can set breakpoint in the method called by the task
If it is a method that you want to debug, use SWO1, and create a instance of the object and debug the methods
If it is a background task, and you are in development client, you can do the following. Create an infinite loop in the method you want to debug. Go to SM50 (processes overview) and select the relevant item, and select debug from option.

Huge number of events is getting created in a short duration of time, and thus creating a huge load on the system and making it very slow. Solution?

Enable event queue. It will ensure that triggered events are received in a phased manner. This needs to be done while providing event linkages.

Why ‘Process Control’ is used? What are its features?

‘Process Control’ is used to manipulate another work item of the workflow during runtime.
‘Process Control’ is usually used to model the workflow when deadlines are reached. SAP offers 4 standard behaviors as part of process control.

Cancel Work item: Target WI is logically deleted. Subsequent tasks are not executed. Precondition is that Process control and the target WI have to be in different branches of the same fork.
Set Work item to obsolete: The target WI is set to complete, and processing continues in the branch processing obsolete.
Cancel Workflow: Current workflow is set to ‘Complete’. If this is the sub workflow, then the control goes to super-ordinate workflow.
Complete (terminate) Workflow: Same as above, but the branch of super-ordinate workflow which contains the current sub-workflow will not be continued.
Cancel Workflow including all callers: Same as above, but all callers also will be ‘COMPLETE’d.

What is the integration point with ESS Portal?

Tcode SWFVISU
Portal config file for UWL

What are the types of work items?

Dialog Work item – W
Background work item
Workflow work item
Work queue work item
Missed deadline work item: When a deadline is missed a missed deadline workitem with the message appears in inbox

What are the different statuses of a work item?

Waiting
Ready
Reserved
Inprocess
Executed (‘confirm end of processing’ in task definition)
Completed
Logically deleted
Error

Difference between Asynchronous and Synchronous methods in a task

A work item created as part of synchronous in locked until end of the method execution. But in asynchronous, work item is locked only until start of method execution.
At least one terminating event is required for a task using Asynchronous task

What is the use of secondary methods in an Activity?

A modal call
Before work item executing
After work item execution

What is the use of “Advance with dialog”?

If this indicator is set for an activity, workflow system checks if the processer of current task is also a recipient for next task. If yes, then the next task will be executed immediately.

What is a background work item ? Are they displayed in the Business Workplace ?

A background work item (code B) represents tasks that do not require any user interaction. They are controlled and executed automatically by the workflow system, and do not appear in the Business Workplace. However, you may view them using the Work Item Selection Report.

Which method is executed if space is passed for the method parameter of macro SWC_CALL_METHOD ?

The Default method of the object type is executed if a space is passed as the method parameter value. You can find the default method by viewing the applicable object using transaction SWO1 and going to menu option “Goto -> Basic Data” and clicking on the Defaults tab. The default method is located in the field “Method”

Why is my work item going to all users?

This normally happens when  a task has been set to General Task and the agent assignment fails to return an agent (or hasn’t been set) and the “Terminate if rule resolution has no result” box has not been checked. This is usually fixed by checking the “Terminate if rule resolution has no result” box.

Name the tables used for storing the event linkages ?

-SWE TYPE U – Type Linkage Table

-SWEINSTCOU – Instance Linkage Table

Is it possible to configure the SAP workflow to have a pop-up message sent to the approver in the instance that Purchase Requisitions are ready for them to act on?

You can either send an Express Email message, or if it is a work item, then make the Priority = 9. It will send an express message to the Respective Agent

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