Typo3 CMS Interview Questions

1.What is TYPO3 CMS ?

Answer:

TYPO3 is a free and open source web content management system written in PHP. It is released under the GNU General Public License. It can run on several web servers, such as Apache or IIS, on top of many operating systems, among them Linux, Microsoft Windows, FreeBSD, Mac OS X and OS/2

2. What are the page-related functions in the context menu of a page?

Answer: The page-related functions in the context menu of a page are:

1. Show: Opens the page you clicked in the browser (frontend)
2. Disable: Disables the page (so it isn’t accessible from the frontend anymore)
3. Edit: Lets you edit the page properties
4. Info: Displays information about the page
5. History/Undo: Shows the change history of the page (who did which changes when)
6. Page Actions: Action related to the selected page
New: Lets you create a new page or new content
Cut: Cuts the page
Copy: Copies the page
Delete: Deletes the page
7. Branch Actions: Actions related to the whole branch
Mount as treeroot: Temporarily makes the selected page being the treeroot
Expand Branch: Same as clicking on a “closed” the arrow
Collapse Branch: Same as clicking on an “open” arrow
Export to .t3d: Opens the export tool and preselects the selected page
Import from .t3d: Opens the import tool and preselects the selected page

3. What is pid?

Answer: pid refers to the page the content element is on and it is one of the tt_content table field.

4.What is DB Mounts?

Answer: DB mounts (database mounts) are used to restrict a user’s access to only some parts of the page tree. Each mount corresponds to a page in the tree. The user will have access only to those pages and their sub- pages.

5. What is Database (DB) Check module?

Answer: Database (DB) Check module offers following four functions:

1. Record Statistics: Simple shows a count of the various records in the database, broken down by type for pages and content elements.

2. Relations: Checks if some relations are empty or broken, especially with regards to files.

3. Search: A tool to seach through the whole database. It offers an advanced mode which is nearly a visual query builder.

4. Check and update global reference index: TYPO3 CMS keeps a record of relations between all records. This may get out of sync when some operations are performed without the strict context of the backend. It is therefore useful to update this index regularly.

6.What tools are used to process images in TYPO3 CMS?

Answer: ImageMagick or GraphicsMagic

7. Explain select function?

Answer: The select function generates a SQL SELECT query, which is used to read records from the database. select automatically checks whether the records might be “hidden”, “deleted”, or if they have a “start and end date”. If pidInList is used (meaning a list of pages is rendered), the function also checks if the current user is allowed to see all records.

With the help of the select function, it is possible to show the content of a page on all pages.

8.Explain Filelist module?

Answer: The FILE > Filelist module is where you can manage all the media associated with the TYPO3 CMS web site.

It displays a navigation tree, which corresponds to the file structure on the server, and a list of all files for the selected directory.

9.What are default directories in TYPO3 installation?

Answer: Following is the list of default directories in TYPO3 installation:

fileadmin/

This is a directory in which users can store files. Typically images, PDFs or HTML files appear in this directory and/or its sub directories. Often this directory is used for downloadable files. This directory is the only one accessible using the TYPO3 File module.

typo3/

TYPO3 Backend directory. This directory contains most of the files coming with the TYPO3 Core. The files are arranged logically in the different system extensions in the sysext/ directory, according to the application area of the particular file. For example, the “frontend” extension amongst other things contains the “TypoScript library”, the code for generating the Frontend website. In each system extension the PHP files are located in the folder Classes/. Additionally, typo3/ can contain some global extensions in the ext/ directory (which is not used by the TYPO3 core itself).

typo3conf/

TYPO3 configuration directory

typo3conf/ext/

Directory for TYPO3 extensions. Each subdirectory contains one extension.

typo3temp/

Directory for temporary files. It contains subdirectories for temporary files of extensions and TYPO3 components.

uploads/

Default upload directory. Extensions can use the uploadfolder setting in ext_emconf.php to specify a subdirectory of uploads/ for this extension.

10.What is the use of Log module?

Answer: Log module keeps log of a number of actions performed by users. For example: login, cache clearing, database entries (creation, update, deletion), settings changes, file actions and errors.

11.Explain imgResource function

Answer: The imgResource function relates to modifications of pictures. With this function we can resize the image, we can set minimum or maximum dimensions o the image and we can have direct access to ImageMagick/GraphicsMagick features.

12.Explain TypoScript syntax.

Answer: TypoScript is parsed in a very simple way; line by line. This means that each line normally contains three parts based on this formula:

[Object Path] [Operator] [Value]

object path: The object path (in this case myObject.myProperty) is like the variable name in a programming language. The object path is the first block of non-whitespace characters on a line until one of the characters =<>{( or a white space is found. The dot (.) is used to separate objects and properties from each other creating a hierarchy. Here we have the object myObject with the property myProperty. Use only A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “-“, “_” and periods (.) for object paths!

Dots in the object path can be escaped using a backslash.

operator: The operator (in the example it is =) can be one of the characters =<>{(. The various operators are described below.

value: The value (in case of the above example “value 2”) is whatever characters follow the operator until the end of the line, but trimmed for whitespace at both ends. Notice that values are not encapsulated in quotes! The value starts after the operator and ends with the line break.

Comments: When a line starts with / or # it is considered to be a comment and will be ignored.

Comment blocks: When a line starts with /* or */ it defines the beginning or the end of a comment section respectively.

13.What possibilities are offered by TYPO3 CMS templates

Answer: Here is a short list of the possibilities offered by TYPO3 CMS templates:

1. You can implement any design you like, the way you like.
2. You can have any number of menu levels.
3. You can have multiple sites, multiple templates.
4. You can have pages in any number of languages.
5. You can have multiple content areas (columns) on a page.
6. You can integrate all kinds of external data sources through plugins written in PHP.
7. You can add any number of web applications to run on various pages in TYPO3.
8. You can extend pretty much anything with PHP.

14. What is Page tree?

Answer: The page tree represents the hierarchical structure of your pages. In most cases this corresponds exactly to the navigation structure of your web site. The page tree can be expanded by clicking the little arrows on the left of the items.

 15.What is File Mount?

Answer: “File Mounts” comes under the “Mounts and Workspaces” tab where you can mount certain directory to the user’s Filelist module.

16. What are the advantages of TYPO3 CMS?

Answer: Advantages of TYPO3 CMS:

1. Modularity: Probably the main goal for which Typo3 was created, was its modularity and diversity. That is why it’s great as a script for a company page as well as a base for a large news site.

2. Extensions: The system offers several thousands extensions that can be quickly and easily installed. You can expand functionalities by additional image galleries, discussion boards, internet shop, etc.

3. Elastic administrators system: Many systems allow for only one administrator. Typo3 allows for giving users all kinds of permissions, so that a user can be a plain user who can browse through the page content or an administrator who can manage it. What is more the users can be assigned to groups like editor groups.

4. Content types: There are many types of content you can define in Typo3. This gives you a lot of control over the page layout when you add images, forms, tables, multimedia or just plain text.

5. Support: Typo3 homepage has well extended documentation as well as a discussion board. You will find plenty of information and help concerning use and modification of the script.

6. Undoing changes: The system contains extended undoing changes module. In case of a big portal with several administrators, this option is highly desirable. You will be able to restore previous version of your page practically without any limitations.

7. Changing a page structure: One of the most important advantages is ability to set a page structure without pre-fixed order of blocks, sections or articles.

8. Internal TypoScript language: The script has an internal language called TypoScript that allows for creation of many elements like static HTML with dynamic content in it.

17.What are the general requirements for PHP files?

Answer: General requirements for PHP files:

PHP tags: Each PHP file in TYPO3 must use the full (as opposed to short) opening PHP tag. <?php

Line breaks: TYPO3 uses Unix line endings ( , PHP chr(10)). If a developer uses Windows or Mac OS X platform, the editor must be configured to use Unix line endings.

Line length: Very long lines of code should be avoided for questions of readability. A line length of about 130 characters (including spaces) is fine. Longer lines should be split into several lines whenever possible. Each line fragment starting from the second must – compared to the first one – be indented with four space characters more.

Whitespace and indentation: TYPO3 uses space characters to indent source code. Following PSR-2, one indentation level consists of four spaces.

There must be no white spaces in the end of a line. This can be done manually or using a text editor that takes care of this.

Character set: All TYPO3 source files use the UTF-8 character set without byte order mark (BOM)

Comments in the code are highly welcome and recommended. Inline comments must precede the commented line and be indented with the same number of spaces as the commented line.

Usage of opening and closing curly braces is mandatory in all cases where they can be used according to PHP syntax

Conditions: Conditions consist of if, elseif and else keywords.

Loops: The following loops can be used:

do
while
for
foreach

18. Explain Info and Functions modules.

Answer: The WEB > Info module displays a variety of information related to the pages in your web site. It contains several functions which can be accessed by the dropdown menu in the docheader. We can create several pages in one go.

19. Give the file structure used by TYPO3 files.

Answer: TYPO3 files use the following structure:

1. Opening PHP tag
2. Namespace
3. Copyright notice
4. Included files
5. Class information block in phpDoc format
6. PHP class
7. Optional module execution code (for example, in eID classes)

 20.How to manage users in Typo3?

Answer: We can create backend users from the User Admin module by clicking the “Create new user” button in the module’s header. A quite large page with many options will open, where you can select for example which modules the user can access and many more.

From “File Mounts” under the “Mounts and Workspaces” tab we can mount certain directory to the user’s Filelist module.

The “DB mounts” points which page from the whole page tree will become the root page for the user. A specific part of the page tree we can give to specific user .

For each page there is an owner user, an owner group and then permission settings in five different categories: read page, edit page, delete page, new sub-page and page content. We can set and view permissions in the “Access” module.

21.What is if function?

Answer: TypoScript “if” function does not work like the “if” construct known from most programming language.
Generally the if function returns true, if all conditions are fulfilled. This resembles a boolean AND combination. If what we would like returned is a false value, we can use the :code`negate` option to negate the result.

With the use of if it is also possible to compare values. For this purpose we use value property.

22. What is the use of Report module?

Answer: In Report module we will have overview of our site’s parameters as well as the problems detected with installation. It is advisable to check reports regularly as it will give you the details about security issues, configuration problem etc.

23.What is ChangeLog file?

Answer: The TYPO3 core comes with a ChangeLog file in which all changes are recorded.

24. What are the most exciting new functionalities in TYPO3 CMS 6.2 LTS?

Answer: The new Install Tool simplifies installation and provides a view of all the different possibilities, immediately upon set-up of the solution.

Responsive images are available: not only can websites be responsive, but their images can be, as well. To set this up, the user selects an image size from his/her fixed workstation, for each desired terminal type (mobile devices in particular). The appearance of those images? adaptations to other screen sizes can be previewed in the back office.

Another new feature of TYPO3 CMS 6.2 is its File Abstraction Layer (FAL), which makes it possible to store, in a single location, a file (especially an image) that is shared between different content elements. This optimized storage prevents duplication and yields gains in storage space. Additionally, when a file is replaced in one spot, it is simultaneously replaced across all the content stored in the CMS.

We would also like to point out the new distribution system, thanks to which users can create their own TYPO3 CMS distribution, i.e. they can package a website or a site model and roll it out quickly and easily.

Also worthy of note is the enhanced security provided by the default activation of the ?salted password? extension and its inclusion in Install Tool. Protection against CSRF attacks has also been applied throughout the backend of TYPO3 CMS.

25.Explain typolink function.

Answer: Typolink function Wraps the incoming value with a link. typolink is the TYPO3 CMS function that allows us to generate all kinds of links. If possible one should always use this function to generate links as they will be processed by TYPO3 CMS. This is a prerequisite, for example, for the “realurl” extension to generate speaking URLs or for the anti-spam protection of email addresses.

26. What is tt_content?

Answer: tt_content is the database table where all content elements are stored.

27. How does migration work from the earlier versions?

Answer: Migrating from versions 6.0 and 6.1 is a seamless process. Migrations from TYPO3 4.5 LTS are done via Migration Tool.

28.What is prerequisite for installation of TYPO3 CMS?

Answer: For trying out TYPO3 CMS you need to have a fully configured and ready to use web server which meets the minimum system requirements.

If you do not have a web server and you are running a MS Windows on local your machine, you might want to try the TYPO3Winstaller, which will install a web server and TYPO3 CMS on your computer.

Make sure to have your database credentials ready.

29. Explain stdWrap(standard wrap) function.

Answer: The stdWrap function is one of the most powerful and most widely used of all TypoScript. Most properties actually support stdWrap. This function is often added as a property to values in TypoScript.

Heed the order: The single most important thing to know about stdWrap is that all properties are parsed/executed exactly in the order in which they appear in the TypoScript Reference, no matter in which order you have set them in your TypoScript template.

Modify the order: There is a way around this ordering restriction. stdWrap has a property called orderedStdWrap in which several stdWrap properties can be called in numerical order.

The data type: While writing TypoScript, it is crucial to know what kind of data type you are handling.

cObject: The stdWrap property “cObject” can be used to replace the content with a TypoScript object. This can be a COA, a plugin or a text like in this example:

10.typolink.title.cObject = TEXT
10.typolink.title.cObject.value = Copyright
10.typolink.title.cObject.case = upper

30. What is List module?

Answer: The List view typically shows the list of records present on the current page, grouped by type. The name which appears for each record depends on which field is used as label. For “pages”, the field is “Pagetitle”.

31. What is TypoScript?

Answer: TypoScript is a configuration language. TypoScript is the glue that joins content and design together. TypoScript reads content which is stored in the database, prepares it for display and then renders it in the frontend.

32.Explain Backend and Frontend of TYPO3 CMS?

Answer: TYPO3 CMS is divided into two areas – the backend and the frontend. The frontend is the website that is produced by TYPO3 CMS. It is visible by everyone out there on the web. The administrative area of the web site is called the backend. A user name and a password are always required to log into the backend.

To display the frontend, enter the URL of your web site in the address bar of your browser (e.g. http://www.your-site.example.org/).

The backend is accessed by adding /typo3/ to your web site’s URL (e.g http://www.your-site.example.org/typo3/)

33.What is CType?

Answer: CType is a database field that each content element has in which the type of the content element is stored.

34.What is uid?

Answer: uid is the unique id for each record in TYPO3 CMS table.

35.Explain parseFunc?

Answer: parseFunc function parses the main part of the content, i.e., the content which has been entered in the Rich Text Editor. The function is responsible for the fact that the content is not rendered exactly as it was entered in the RTE.

36.What actions icons are present in List module?

Answer: The List view offers a lot of action icons:

1. create a new record (a wizard appears to let choose which type)

2. view the current page (in the frontend)

3. edit the current page

4. search in the current page

5. clear the cache of the current page

6. refresh the List view

7. bookmark this view

8. access contextual help

9. create a new page record (specifically)

10. action icons for the record. What icons appear here depends on the record type. If the record is viewable in the frontend (as “pages” are), a “View” icon is displayed. All records will have the next three icons, respectively “Edit”, “Hide/unhide” (i.e. visible in the frontend or not) and “Delete”.

11. The ellipsis icon (three consecutive dots) expands the icon list to show additional action icons (typically for accessing information, moving around, etc.)

Last come the cut and paste icons.

 37.What is mass editing?

Answer: The List module also makes it possible to display more information about each record and to edit several records at a time.

38.What are the two contexts where TypoScript is used?

Answer: Following are two contexts where TypoScript is used:

templates, where TypoScript is used to actually define what will appear in the TYPO3 CMS frontend.

TSconfig, where it is used to configure settings of the TYPO3 backend. TSconfig is further subdivided into User TSconfig (defined for backend users or user groups) and Page TSconfig (defined for pages in the page tree).

39.What is Extension Manager?

Answer: Extensions are add on features. TYPO3 CMS is made of extensions. With public extensions we can upgrade a feature or add a new feature.

The Extension Manager is used to manage available extensions or get new ones from the TYPO3 Extension Repository. To view installed extensions Click ADMIN TOOLS > Extensions.

40.List disadvantages of TYPO3 CMS?

Answer: Disadvantages of TYPO3 CMS:

1. Installation and modification: Typo3 is not easy to install and set up. It takes time to learn to use it, it definitely takes more time than you would need for WordPress or Joomla. That’s why it’s not recommended for beginners, but for more advanced programmers.

2. Server resources and efficiency: Modularity and expendability often means bigger demands on server parameters. This certainly is the case. Still, if the website is not too large and there will not be thousands of visitors, there should be no problems, at least not in the beginning.

3. From simple to hard: While for editors content management in Typo3 is simple, and administrators are required to have somewhat more of the script’s know-how, it’s a hard nut to crack for programmers.

41.Give examples of TypoScript functions?

Answer: Examples of TypoScript functions:

standard wrap”, usually known as “stdWrap”
imgResource, select, split, if, typolink, parseFunc

42.What makes new version of TYPO3 CMS 6.2 an important one?

Answer: TYPO3 CMS 6.2 is a long term support (LTS) version, with a minimum of three years? cover, i.e. through to at least March 2017.

43.Expalin split function?

Answer: The split function can be used to split given data at a predefined character and process the single pieces afterwards. At every iteration, the current index key SPLIT-COUNT is stored (starting with 0).

By using split, we could, for example, read a table field and wrap every single line with a certain code

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